It is no surprise to say that water is an integral part of the hydration process of concrete. However, allowing excess moisture to leave the slab once it is poured is just as crucial to a flooring installation. Once the slab is poured, the excess moisture must leave the slab in order to strengthen the concrete bond and to permit successful flooring installations. Moisture-related damage to flooring materials is of course possible, but the real risk to a successful floor lies between the concrete slab and the flooring itself.
Three common floor materials run the risk of moisture-related problems.
Moisture-related adhesive failures have always been a problematic reality in the flooring business. In addition, with recent trends towards restricting volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in flooring adhesives, there has also been an increase in the number of moisture-sensitive adhesives in use. If the adhesive being used to install the flooring does not have the correct moisture tolerance for the concrete subfloor, the entire installation can be at risk.
- Floating Floors
The attraction of floating floor systems is that they do not need to be attached directly to a subfloor. Instead, the floor pieces “lock” together to become a cohesive unit that is not as subjected to seasonal shifts, dimensional challenges or other moisture-related issues. In fact, floating floors are often the recommended product of choice for floors where high moisture situations may present issues with standard attached floor systems.
For these floors, manufacturers often recommend the installation of a moisture barrier between the subfloor and the floating floor to prevent moisture intrusion. The difficulty, of course, is that if that barrier is compromised in any way, moisture from the slab beneath can still damage the flooring or finish.
- Grout or Cementitious Bonds
Excess moisture issues in a grouted tile or mosaic floor will often appear as efflorescence, a whitish residue on the surface of the grout. It’s the result of water-soluble minerals being dissolved by the moisture within the slab and being transported to the surface of the grout where the moisture evaporates away, leaving the minerals as a visible residue. The more porous the concrete or the grout, the more likely efflorescence will appear.
In the majority of cases, these minerals are actually part of the concrete slab mixture (or possibly in the ground beneath the slab, if no moisture barrier was installed). If the slab was not effectively dried before the tile was installed, the natural moisture migration of the drying concrete will impact the grout, and remediation steps will be necessary to correct the problem.
In extreme cases, excess moisture can lead to flaking or chipping of the grout and a complete grout or thinset failure.
Moisture Content in a Concrete Subfloor
Are you seeing a theme yet?
Moisture control is often one of the most crucial, yet most overlooked, elements of any floor’s success over time, and that means accurate moisture measurement, beginning at the slab.
Accurate concrete moisture measurement is best achieved with relative humidity (RH) testing. Unlike surface-based tests like calcium chloride tests, RH testing determines the accurate moisture content within the slab by placing probes at a strategic and proven depth. Moisture often rises through a slab from the bottom to the top in the drying process, so only testing performed at the correct depth can let you determine if the final moisture content of the slab will be compatible with the flooring and the products used to install it.
Because we at Wagner Meters have been assisting flooring professionals for over 40 years, we have also designed some of the most accurate and innovative testing methods on the market today.
Our Rapid RH® 4.0 is based on decades of scientific research and technological advances to help each builder and flooring specialist accurately determine the correct concrete RH level for his or her chosen flooring and products. Our innovative Easy Reader™ and factory-calibrated Smart Sensor design mean that results are quick, simple and reliable. The Rapid RH® line of products is affordable and conforms to ASTM F2170 requirements for easy recording and reporting.
We also understand that sometimes a building project schedule means making alternate choices in adhesives or even flooring products, and the Rapid RH® can help you make informed decisions. Along with accurate, actionable testing, we’ve also compiled a one-stop list of manufacturers that provide an RH tolerance for their flooring products at www.rhspec.com.
The truest way to protect a floor system is to be sure that all components are safe from excess moisture intrusion from any source. The Rapid RH® helps you be sure that your concrete slab will not be the source of a moisture-related flooring adhesive or grout failure. Don’t let moisture problems come between you and a successful flooring installation.