If a species is not footnoted with a number (1-18), then the specific gravity for that species has not been verified by Wagner. In most cases, with unverified species, these species have the same botanical name as the verified version but just a different common name. Many species (botanical name) in the world have many different common names. The footnote descriptions are shown at the bottom of the page.*

Wood Species Types in Alphabetical Order

To obtain the most accurate moisture content measurements with your Wagner moisture meter, you must set the meter for the correct species settings value for the species you are going to measure. For our customers' convenience, we have calibrated our meter's species settings in terms of specific gravity.*

For those instances where you need to measure moisture in a wood species that is not shown in your User’s Manual, Wagner has compiled this extensive database of wood species with their associated specific gravity values.

The sources for our database include the United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Products Laboratory.

The published specific gravity values are the average for each species. There can and will be some variability of the specific gravity (density) within any species of wood, but the average specific gravity value (again, from the most valid published sources) will provide the best settings for your Wagner moisture meter.

Common nameBotanical NameSpecific GravityVerified
PaKoompassia malaccensis0.76
Paang-DaragaAlangium meyeri0.56
PaardevleeshoutManilkara bidentata0.95
PabePopulus ciliata0.37
PachicheMinquartia guianensis0.83
Alnus rubra0.41
Chamaecyparis nootkatensis0.44
Tsuga heterophylla0.45
Acer macrophyllum0.48
Tsuga heterophylla0.45
Pacific MadroneArbutus menziesii0.643
Thuja plicata0.32
Thuja plicata0.32
Pacific Silver FirAbies amabilis0.431
Abies concolor0.39
Hymenaea courbaril0.83
Pterocarpus indicus0.57

Pterocarpus macrocarpus0.79
PadaukPterocarpus marsupium0.714
Pterocarpus soyauxii0.64
Pterocarpus soyauxii0.64
PagpaganXanthophyllum excelsum0.67
PahKoompassia malaccensis0.76
PahutanMangifera altissima0.52
PahutanMangifera indica0.53
PahutenMangifera indica0.53
Pain d'EspicePouteria pomifera0.84
PaitanPygeum turnerianum0.44
PajakiruMitragyna parvifolia0.59
PajoelidanIryanthera spp.0.58
Hymenaea courbaril0.83
Pometia pinnata0.60
Hymenaea courbaril0.83
Prunus serotina0.50
PalachPopulus ciliata0.37
PalaloeaMora excelsa0.89
PalapiHeritiera javanica0.65
PalatanganAlbizia procera0.55
PaldaoDracontomelon edule0.44
PaldaoDracontomelum dao0.66
PaliDichopsis elliptica0.56
PaliErythrophloeum densiflorum0.68
PalimaranDichopsis elliptica0.56
Palisandre du HondurasDalbergia stevensonii0.88
Palisandro de HondurasDalbergia stevensonii0.88
Palissandre du CongoMillettia laurentii0.8114
Palissandre VoamboanaDalbergia baronii0.47
Hymenaea courbaril0.83
Hymenaea courbaril0.83
PallaDichopsis elliptica0.56
Guibourtia ehie0.71
Millettia laurentii0.81
PaloTetragastris altissima0.74
Palo BlancoGossypiospermum praecox0.77
Palo CacharroCordia alliodora0.51
Palo ChanchoHieronyma alchorneoides0.58
Palo CochinoTetragastris altissima0.74
Prioria copaifera0.42
Palo de AguaVochysia hondurensis0.52
Astronium graveolens0.89
Astronium graveolens0.80
Palo de ChanchoVochysia ferruginea0.52
Palo de ChanchoVochysia guianensis0.52
Palo de ChanchoVochysia hondurensis0.52
Palo de ChanchoVochysia lehmanni0.52
Palo de ChanchoVochysia tomentosa0.52
Astronium graveolens0.89
Astronium graveolens0.80
Astronium graveolens0.89
Astronium graveolens0.80
Palo de NuezAleurites moluccana0.14
Palo de OroBrosimum rubescens0.63
Palo de PolloDipterocarpus basilanicus0.54
Palo de PolloDipterocarpus grandiflorus0.68
Palo de PolloDipterocarpus warburgii0.53
Palo de PolloPterocarpus marsupium0.714
Palo de PolloPterocarpus vernalis0.63
Palo de SangreVirola koschnyi0.51
Palo de SangreVirola surinamensis0.51
Palo MoradoPeltogyne porphyrocardia0.69
Palo MoradoPeltogyne venosa0.69
Astronium graveolens0.89
Astronium graveolens0.80
Palo Sangre NegroPterocarpus vernalis0.63
Palo SantoGuaiacum spp.1.2610
Platymiscium pinnatum0.87
Palo TrebolAmburana cearensis0.584
Swietenia macrophylla0.47
Swietenia macrophylla0.47
Swietenia macrophylla0.47
PalonapinTarrietia sylvatica0.82
Pterocarpus soyauxii0.64
PalosapisAnisoptera cochinchinensis0.52
PalosapisAnisoptera costata0.52
PalosapisAnisoptera curtisii0.52
PalosapisAnisoptera laevis0.44
PalosapisAnisoptera thurifera0.52
PaluahanDysoxylum euphlebium0.63
PaluchPopulus ciliata0.37
Pinus palustris0.59
Pinus palustris0.59
PalvadindanDichopsis elliptica0.56
PamashtoManilkara bidentata0.95
PamilinganPygeum turnerianum0.44
Hymenaea courbaril0.83
Platymiscium pinnatum0.87
Platymiscium pinnatum0.87
PanchontaDichopsis elliptica0.56
PanchotiDichopsis elliptica0.56
PanchotipalaDichopsis elliptica0.56
Panga PangaMillettia stuhlmannii0.8313
Pangol-LokillotenDiplodiscus paniculatus0.62
PaniasiKoompassia malaccensis0.76
PanikinPygeum turnerianum0.44
PantanoHieronyma alchorneoides0.58
PantanoHyeronyma laxiflora0.58
Tabebuia serratifolia0.99
Tabebuia serratifolia0.99
Tabebuia serratifolia0.99
Pao VioletaPeltogyne porphyrocardia0.69
PapaoAfzelia bipindensis0.62
PapaoAfzelia pachyloba0.62
Buxus sempervirens0.83
Paper BbirchBetula papyrifera0.551
Betula papyrifera0.55
Buxus sempervirens0.83
Buxus sempervirens0.83
Pterocarpus indicus0.57
Paradise WoodExcoecaria agallocha0.42
ParaisoMelia azedarach0.51
ParajuManilkara bidentata0.95
ParakauaMora excelsa0.89
Parana PineAraucaria angustifolia0.492
Cedrela odorata0.39
Cedrela odorata0.39
ParaparaLophira alata0.94
Para RubbertreeHevea brasiliensis0.5116
ParasolierMusanga cecropioides0.23
Parcouri MontagneAspidosperma desmanthum0.65
PardilloCordia alliodora0.51
Pardillo NegroTerminalia amazonia0.76
Pardillo NegroTerminalia amazonica0.76
Plathymenia reticulata0.56
ParinaPinus insularis0.50
Millettia stuhlmannii0.83
PartridgewoodMillettia stuhlmannii0.8313
ParuaPinus insularis0.50
PasIntsia bijuga0.65
PasalVitex cofassus0.67
PasinMammea africana0.69
PasseeMammea africana0.69
Pata de DantoTerminalia amazonia0.76
Triplochiton scleroxylon0.32
Paternoster BoomMelia azedarach0.51
Paternoster TreeMelia azedarach0.51
PaternosterbaumMelia azedarach0.51
PaternostertraMelia azedarach0.51
PaternostertreeMelia azedarach0.51
Pinus strobus0.35
Plathymenia reticulata0.56
Pau BrancoGossypiospermum praecox0.77
Tabebuia serratifolia0.99
Pau d'ArcoTabebuia serratifolia0.994
Plathymenia reticulata0.56
Pau de CorhimeByrsonima coriacea0.68
Dalbergia frutescens1.02
Pau de QuinaHieronyma alchorneoides0.58
Pau HoiMachilus odoratissima0.59
Pau IncensoDaniella oliveri0.49
Pau Mulato BranchoTerminalia amazonia0.76
Pau PretoRhamnus zeyheri0.86
Pau RainhaBrosimum rubescens0.63
Pau RosaAniba duckei0.56
Dalbergia frutescens1.02
Pau RoxoPeltogyne porphyrocardia0.69
Pau RoxoPeltogyne venosa0.69
Pau SanguaDipterocarpus basilanicus0.54
Pau SanguaDipterocarpus grandiflorus0.68
Pau SanguaDipterocarpus warburgii0.53
Pau SanguaPterocarpus marsupium0.714
Pau SanguaPterocarpus vernalis0.63
Pau VioletaPeltogyne venosa0.69
PaucontaAfzelia bipindensis0.62
PaucontaAfzelia pachyloba0.62
PaumiprwahMitragyna parvifolia0.59
Pau-Mulato BranchoTerminalia amazonica0.76
Pau-Quina-VermelhaHieronyma alchorneoides0.58
Nyssa aquatica0.50
PayaPodocarpus guatemalensis0.54
PayaPodocarpus neriifolia0.48
PaypilaArtocarpus hirsuta0.52
Terminalia superba0.40
Carya aquatica0.62
Carya cordiformis0.66
Carya illinoensis0.66
Carya myristiciformis0.60
Pecan HickoryCarya illinoensis0.661
PechicheMinquartia guianensis0.83
Libocedrus decurrens0.37
Pedada-PajaTetramerista glabra0.73
Pedu KaluiAnisoptera costata0.52
Pedunculate OakQuercus petraea0.65
PegyaMammea africana0.69
Araucaria angustifolia0.49
PeindoMusanga cecropioides0.23
PejriMelia azedarach0.51
PekiaCaryocar villosum0.76
PelapiHeritiera javanica0.65
PelmaxAspidosperma desmanthum0.65
Pelo moradoPeltogyne porphyrocardia0.69
Pelo moradoPeltogyne venosa0.69
PenagaCalophyllum inophyllum0.55
PenagaCalophyllum tomentosum0.59
PenagaMesua ferrea0.92
PenakBalanocarpus heimii0.78
Penak BungaBalanocarpus heimii0.78
Penak LilinBalanocarpus heimii0.78
Penak SabutBalanocarpus heimii0.78
Penak TambagaBalanocarpus heimii0.78
PenarahanMyristica buchneriana0.41
PenarahanMyristica chartacea0.48
PenarahanMyristica hypargyraea0.44
PenarahanMyristica sp.0.54
Libocedrus decurrens0.37
Tabebuia serratifolia0.99
Quercus robur0.57
Quercus robur0.57
PengiranAnisoptera cochinchinensis0.52
PengiranAnisoptera costata0.52
Pengirin KesatAnisoptera costata0.52
PengtarowGrewia elastica0.63
PenogranAnisoptera costata0.52
Taxodium distichum0.46
Taxodium distichum0.46
Nyssa sylvatica0.50
PepperwoodUmbellularia californica0.553
PequiCaryocar villosum0.76
PequiaCaryocar villosum0.76
Pequi-de-ZoadaHieronyma alchorneoides0.58
PerakauaMora excelsa0.89
PeralejoByrsonima coriacea0.68
Peralejo de PinarByrsonima coriacea0.68
Perapat HutanAnisoptera costata0.52
PerawanShorea contorta0.374
PerawanShorea leprosula0.504
PerawanShorea leptoclados0.384
PerawanShorea smithiana0.434
PeriMesua ferrea0.92
PeridjahAleurites moluccana0.14
PernetamoManilkara zapota0.71
Peroba de Campos
Paratecoma peroba
0.66
2
Peroba Rosa
Aspidosperma peroba
0.71
2
Buxus sempervirens0.83
Persian LilacMelia azedarach0.51
Diospyros virginiana0.71
PeruetanoManilkara zapota0.71
Swietenia macrophylla0.47
Pessegueiro BravoByrsonima coriacea0.68
Hura crepitans0.40
PetataGonystylus macrophyllum0.54
PeterebiCordia alliodora0.51
Peterebi PardilloCordia alliodora0.51
PetoMora excelsa0.89
Peto PrakowaMora excelsa0.89
PeulmahoniaAfzelia quanzensis0.62
Populus tremuloides0.38
PhalassuPopulus ciliata0.37
PhalduMitragyna parvifolia0.59
PhaljaPopulus ciliata0.37
PharsanyiGrewia elastica0.63
PharsawonGrewia elastica0.63
PharsiaGrewia elastica0.63
PharsonGrewia elastica0.63
PhayDuabanga sonneratioides0.37
PhdiekAnisoptera cochinchinensis0.52
PhdiekAnisoptera costata0.52
PhdiekAnisoptera laevis0.44
PhdiekAnisoptera thurifera0.52
Phdiek KrahamAnisoptera costata0.52
Philippine ChestnutCastanopsis acuminatissima0.56
Philippine EbonyDiospyros inclusa0.7014
Philippine EbonyDiospyros mindanaensis0.7814
Philippine GurjunDipterocarpus grandiflorus0.68
Shorea negrosensis0.59
Philippine PinePinus insularis0.50
Shorea negrosensis0.59
PhuhuraGrewia elastica0.63
PhungaliExcoecaria agallocha0.42
PiakAlnus nepalensis0.26
PicatonLoxopterygium sagotii0.62
PidekanAleurites moluccana0.14
Hymenaea courbaril0.83
Piento BolletrieHyeronyma laxiflora0.58
Piento-BolletrieHieronyma alchorneoides0.58
Piento-BolletrieHyeronyma laxiflora0.58
Pinus resinosa0.46
PignioByrsonima coriacea0.68
Pignut Hickory
Carya glabra
0.751
PikAnisoptera curtisii0.52
PilSalix alba0.38
Araucaria angustifolia0.49
PilonHieronyma alchorneoides0.58
Araucaria angustifolia0.49
Pin ColonnaireAraucaria cunninghamii0.443
Pin OakQuercus palustris0.631
PineCarpinus betulus0.61
PinePinus banksiana0.43
PinePinus caribaea0.70
Pinus glabra0.44
PinePinus insularis0.50
Pinus lambertiana0.36
PinePinus merkusii0.59
Pinus monticola0.35
Pinus palustris0.59
Pinus ponderosa0.40
Pinus resinosa0.46
Pinus rigida0.52
Pinus serotina0.56
PinePinus sylvestris0.4514
Pinus taeda0.51
Pinus virginiana0.48
Araucaria angustifolia0.49
Araucaria angustifolia0.49
Araucaria angustifolia0.49
Araucaria angustifolia0.49
Araucaria angustifolia0.49
Araucaria angustifolia0.49
Araucaria angustifolia0.49
Pinho BravoPodocarpus guatemalensis0.54
Pinho BravoPodocarpus neriifolia0.48
Pinho CaribeaPinus caribaea0.70
Araucaria angustifolia0.49
Pinho InsularisPinus insularis0.50
Pinus taeda0.51
Pink BoxwoodPlanchonia papuana0.61
Pink IvoryRhamnus zeyheri0.86
Pink PlanchoniaPlanchonia papuana0.61
Dalbergia frutescens1.02
Pinle-KabweCasuarina equisetifolia0.87
PinleonCarapa molluccensis0.71
Araucaria angustifolia0.49
PinoCasuarina equisetifolia0.87
PinoPinus caribaea0.70
PinoPodocarpus guatemalensis0.54
Pino AustralianoCasuarina equisetifolia0.87
Araucaria angustifolia0.49
Pino CastanetoPodocarpus guatemalensis0.54
Pino CastanetoPodocarpus neriifolia0.48
Pino ChaquiroPodocarpus guatemalensis0.54
Pino ChaquiroPodocarpus neriifolia0.48
Pino CostenoPinus caribaea0.70
Pinus radiata0.45
Pino OcotePinus caribaea0.70
Araucaria angustifolia0.49
Abies concolor0.39
Abies lasiocarpa0.32
Pino RojoGrevillea robusta0.54
Pinus elliottii0.59
Pino VetoPinus caribaea0.70
PintayoGrewia elastica0.63
PintriVirola surinamensis0.51
PinusPinus caribaea0.70
PinusPinus merkusii0.59
PiplasPopulus ciliata0.37
PipliBucklandia populnea0.56
Piqui‡Caryocar villosum0.76
PiquiaCaryocar villosum0.76
Piquia BravoCaryocar villosum0.76
Piquia MarfimAspidosperma desmanthum0.65
Piquia-EteCaryocar villosum0.76
Pitch PinePinus caribaea0.70
Pinus palustris0.59
Pinus ponderosa0.40
Pinus resinosa0.46
Pitch PinePinus rigida0.521
PlachhPopulus ciliata0.37
PlanchonellaPlanchonella euphlebia0.89
PlanchoniaPlanchonia papuana0.61
Acer pseudoplatanus0.57
Platanus occidentalis0.49
Acer pseudoplatanus0.57
PlanetreeAcer pseudoplatanus0.5713
Platanus occidentalis0.49
Plantation HardwoodHevea brasiliensis0.5116
Platanus occidentalis0.49
PlatanePlatanus hybrida0.59
PlatanoMinquartia guianensis0.83
PluLophira alata0.94
Prunus serotina0.50
PlumPygeum africanum0.61
PlumeroVochysia ferruginea0.52
PlumeroVochysia guianensis0.52
PlumeroVochysia lehmanni0.52
PlumeroVochysia tomentosa0.52
PoboPoga oleosa0.39
PoboiMitragyna stipulosa0.53
Pinus serotina0.56
Pod MahoganyAfzelia quanzensis0.62
PodoPodocarpus neriifolia0.48
PodocPodocarpus neriifolia0.48
PodocarpPodocarpus guatemalensis0.54
PogaPoga oleosa0.39
Poga EnoiPoga oleosa0.39
PogoBeilschmiedia mannii0.62
PoirierTerminalia guyanensis0.60
Hymenaea courbaril0.83
PokkaBassia latifolia0.82
PokoEschweilera sagotiana0.90
Pinus ponderosa0.40
Polish AshFraxinus excelsior0.5814
Polish OakQuercus petraea0.65
Quercus robur0.57
Pinus sylvestris0.45
PolvilloTabebuia serratifolia0.994
PolyalthiaPolyalthia fragans0.46
PomaCedrela toona0.47
PometiaPometia pinnata0.604
Pomme CajuAnacardium excelsum0.33
Taxodium distichum0.46
Pond PinePinus serotina0.561
Ponderosa PinePinus ponderosa0.401
Pinus ponderosa0.40
PoneLophira alata0.94
PookadiTerminalia amazonia0.76
PoonCalophyllum tomentosum0.59
PoonamBassia latifolia0.82
PopeMitragyna stipulosa0.53
Liriodendron tulipifera0.42
PoplarMitragyna ciliata0.52
PoplarMitragyna stipulosa0.53
Populus balsamifera0.34
PoplarPopulus ciliata0.37
Populus deltoides0.40
Populus trichocarpa0.35
Poplar GumEucalyptus alba0.88
PopoMitragyna ciliata0.52
PopoMitragyna stipulosa0.53
PopoeMitragyna stipulosa0.53
Liriodendron tulipifera0.42
PorapaDysoxylum malabaricum0.62
PoroposoPterygota bequaertii0.53
PoroposoPterygota macrocarpa0.54
Port Orford CedarChamaecyparis lawsoniana0.431
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana0.43
PosaMorus alba0.60
PoshurCarapa molluccensis0.71
Hura crepitans0.40
Hura crepitans0.40
Diospyros virginiana0.71
Hura crepitans0.40
Libocedrus decurrens0.37
Robinia pseudoacacia0.69
Post OakQuercus stellata0.671
Astronium graveolens0.89
Astronium graveolens0.80
Tabebuia serratifolia0.99
PowoMitragyna stipulosa0.53
PracuubaMora excelsa0.89
Pracuuba BrancaMora excelsa0.89
Pracuuba VermelhaMora excelsa0.89
PradooPterocarpus macrocarpus0.793
Pradu-ThaleIntsia bijuga0.65
PrakueMora excelsa0.89
PrefontainVochysia guianensis0.52
PrenkebiLophira alata0.94
Pinus ponderosa0.40
PrietoCordia alliodora0.51
PrimaveraTabebuia donnell-smithii
0.42
2
Tsuga heterophylla0.45
Tsuga heterophylla0.45
Pinus banksiana0.43
PrincewoodCordia alliodora0.51
PronoMansonia altissima0.55
ProproMitragyna ciliata0.52
PrukoiEschweilera sagotiana0.9
PrunoMansonia altissima0.55
Prunus AfricanumPygeum africanum0.61
Pterocarpus macrocarpus0.79
PterygotaPterygota bequaertii0.53
PterygotaPterygota horsfieldii0.65
PterygotaPterygota macrocarpa0.54
Pseudotsuga menziesii0.48
Tabebuia serratifolia0.99
PulaiAlstonia actinophylla0.3914
PulaiAlstonia angustifolia0.3914
PulaiAlstonia scholaris0.3714
PulaiAlstonia spatulata0.3914
PumaquiroAspidosperma desmanthum0.65
Fraxinus pennsylvanica0.56
Pumkin Ash
Fraxinus profunda
0.512
Pinus strobus0.35
Swietenia macrophylla0.47
PunahTetramerista glabra0.73
PunakTetramerista glabra0.73
Punte candadoMinquartia guianensis0.83
PunyauAnisoptera costata0.52
Swietenia macrophylla0.47
PurgioManilkara bidentata0.95
PurgoManilkara bidentata0.95
PuronoMansonia altissima0.55
PurperhartPeltogyne porphyrocardia0.69
PurperhartPeltogyne venosa0.69
PurpleheartPeltogyne porphyrocardia0.69
Purpleheart
Peltogyne spp.
0.71
2
PurpleheartPeltogyne venosa0.69
PurueManilkara bidentata0.95
PurushChloroxylon swietenia0.88
PusalaAlnus nepalensis0.26
PuspaSchima wallichii0.62
PussurCarapa molluccensis0.71
Puta LocusMarmaroxylon racemosum1.07
Putat PayaPlanchonia papuana0.61
PutiBrachystegia spiciformis0.70
PutianAlangium meyeri0.56
PuzalaAlnus nepalensis0.26
PypeumPygeum africanum0.61

Footnotes:

  
1Forest Products Laboratory Wood Handbook @ 12% MC values
2Forest Products Laboratory Wood Handbook Calculated from Green MC values by Wagner
3Forest Products Laboratory Techsheets Calculated from Green MC values by Wagner
4WoodWorkersSource Wood Library Calculated from Green MC values by Wagner
5We included Douglas-fir(Pseudotsuga menziesii) Coast (.48)*, Interior West (.50)*, Interior North (.48)*, Interior South (.46)* to come up with an average SG of (.48)* *“Coast type Douglas-fir is defined as Douglas-fir growing in the States of Oregon and Washington west of the summit of the Cascade Mountains. Interior West includes the State of California and all counties in Oregon and Washington east of but adjacent to the Cascade summit. Interior North includes the remainder of Oregon and Washington and the States of Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming.” Specific Gravity resources: * Wood Handbook page 5-7
6According to USDA Forest Service, Forest Product Laboratory, Wood Handbook 2-8, Hard maple includes sugar maple (Acer saccharum) (.63)* and black maple (A. nigrum) (.57)*.
7According to USDA Forest Service, Forest Product Laboratory, Techsheets, Red Ash includes these three subspecies Fraxinus americana (.60)*, Fraxinus pennsylvanica (.56)*, Fraxinus profunda (.51)*
8According to USDA Forest Service, Forest Product Laboratory, Wood Handbook page 2-8, Soft maple includes silver maple (Acer saccharinum) (.47)*, red maple (A. rubrum) (.54)*, bigleaf maple (A.macrophyllum) (.48)*, and boxelder (A. negundo) (.45)** Specific Gravity resources:
* Wood Handbook page 5-5
** Forest Product Laboratory Techsheet
9According to the Southern Pine Inspection Bureau (SPIB) the four main subspecies that make up the SYP category are: Longleaf, Shortleaf, Loblolly and Slash pines. The SYP mix setting (.56) was determined by taking the average of Longleaf (.59)*, Shortleaf (.51)*, Loblolly (.51)* and Slash pines (.59)* Specific Gravity resources: * Wood Handbook page 5-7 & page 5-8
10 Forest Products Laboratory Techsheets Calculated from Green MC values by Wagner applying an acceptable volumetric shrinkage approximation per USDA GTR FPL-GTL-76
11 According to Forest Products Laboratory Techsheets Guatambu grown in *Brazil has a higher specific gravity then for **Argentinean material. *Guatambu (Brazil) (Balfourodendron riedelianum)(.79) Calculated from Green MC values by Wagner. **Guatambu (Argentinean) (Balfourodendron riedelianum)(.70) Calculated from Green MC values by Wagner.
12Forest Products Laboratory Techsheets Calculated from Dry (0%) MC values by Wagner applying an acceptable volumetric shrinkage approximation per USDA GTR FPL-GTL-76
13WoodWorkersSource Wood Library Calculated from Dry (0%) MC values by Wagner applying an acceptable volumetric shrinkage approximation per USDA GTR FPL-GTL-76
14WoodWorkersSource Wood Library Calculated from Green MC values by Wagner applying an acceptable volumetric shrinkage approximation per USDA GTR FPL-GTL-76
15WoodWorkersSource Wood Library Calculated from Dry (0%) MC values by Wagner
16The Wood Database Calculated from Green MC values by Wagner
17The Wood Database Calculated from Green MC values by Wagner applying an acceptable volumetric shrinkage approximation per USDA GTR FPL-GTL-76
18Tropicaltimber Calculated from Green MC values by Wagner applying an acceptable volumetric shrinkage approximation per USDA GTR FPL-GTL-76
19According to Forest Products Laboratory Techsheets Goncalo Alves grown in *Honduras and Venezuela has a higher specific gravity then for **Brazil and Colombia material. *Goncalo Alves (Honduras and Venezuela) (Astronium graveolens)(.89) Calculated from Green MC values by Wagner. **Goncalo Alves (Brazil and Colombian) (Astronium graveolens)(.80) Calculated from Green MC values by Wagner.
 
 
* Legal disclaimer:

Wagner has compiled species’ average specific gravity (SG) values (wood volume at 12% moisture content (MC) and oven-dry weight) from industry-accepted 3rd-party sources (USDA Forest Products Laboratory as an example) and provides this list for free with no implied warranty. Where an SG value listed in Wagner Meters’ manuals or website has been verified by Wagner, this is indicated as such, and not indicated as verified if a verification process has not been completed by Wagner for that species. Wagner is not responsible for any 3rd-party oversights or errors in their (the 3rd-parties) published SG values.

Where no published average SG value could be found for a species for the wood volume at 12% MC and oven-dry weight basis, Wagner has derived the proper SG value through a robust algorithm (see detailed explanation below under the heading ‘Specific Gravity (SG) Values of Wood and Their Referenced Moisture Content’).
 


 
Specific Gravity (SG) Values of Wood and Their Referenced Moisture Content

 

Wagner Meters’ moisture meters’ species settings are calibrated to wood samples that are at a nominal 12% moisture content (MC). It should also be recognized that the measurement accuracy of non-pin wood moisture meters is almost solely dependent on wood density; that is because wood species that have differing wood density but the same absolute amount of water will have different MC values because the definition of MC is the ratio of water weight to wood weight. Some online and other technical references that cite specific gravity (SG) values for different wood species list the SG when the wood is a different MC other than 12%. For example, some SG values listed are the values when the wood is dried all the way down to where the MC is actually zero. Other listed values are when the wood is “green” at perhaps 80% MC or even higher.

The reason that it matters what the MC was when the SG was determined is that the volume of a wood sample will shrink when it is dried down from high MC values to lower MC values. So as the volume of the wood sample shrinks, the density (SG) of the wood increases because the formula for the wood density is the weight of the wood sample divided by the volume of the wood sample, or more simply the ratio of the weight of the wood to its volume. As the weight stays the same during shrinkage, the volume decreases. Online and other references will not only provide SG values at some specific MC but also their “shrinkage ratio”. The shrinkage ratio is defined to be the percent of the volume of the wood that shrinks per decrease in MC value. For instance, one might see a 2% shrinkage ratio which means that for every 1% drop in MC the wood will shrink by 2% of its volume.

Wagner chose to calibrate its meters at a nominal 12% MC because this is close to where most wood will be in service and will be measured by our meters. Therefore we publish SG values for wood species to be used by our meters that correlate to a 12% MC value. Since online and other references publish SG values at sometimes 0% MC or “green” MC, you will often see different values online than what we publish. We correct these published values by applying correction factors based on MC at referenced SG values and shrinkage ratio published values. It should be noted that a wood sample will not begin shrinking significantly until the MC drops below fiber saturation point, which is generally between 28% and 32%, so we use 30% as the average fiber saturation point.

As an example, let’s say we have a published SG value of 0.50 referenced to 0% MC with a shrinkage ratio of 0.1% of volume per percent MC. We want to convert to an SG value referenced to 12% MC. A sample at 12 % MC will be 1.2% larger in volume (swells 12 * 0.1%). Since 0.50 equals the weight of the sample divided by volume, we now know the volume will actually be 1.2% larger, so the SG should be adjusted by a factor of 1 divided by (1 + 1.2%) or 1 divided by (1.012) = 0.50/1.012 = 0.49). So, in this specific case, the 12 % MC referenced SG value will be slightly less than the published value referenced at 0% MC.