If a species is not footnoted with a number (1-18), then the specific gravity for that species has not been verified by Wagner. In most cases, with unverified species, these species have the same botanical name as the verified version but just a different common name. Many species (botanical name) in the world have many different common names. The footnote descriptions are shown at the bottom of the page.*

Wood Species Types in Alphabetical Order

To obtain the most accurate moisture content measurements with your Wagner moisture meter, you must set the meter for the correct species settings value for the species you are going to measure. For our customers' convenience, we have calibrated our meter's species settings in terms of specific gravity.*

For those instances where you need to measure moisture in a wood species that is not shown in your User’s Manual, Wagner has compiled this extensive database of wood species with their associated specific gravity values.

The sources for our database include the United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Products Laboratory.

The published specific gravity values are the average for each species. There can and will be some variability of the specific gravity (density) within any species of wood, but the average specific gravity value (again, from the most valid published sources) will provide the best settings for your Wagner moisture meter.

Common NameBotanical NameSpecific GravityVerified
HaagbeukCarpinus betulus0.61
Hura crepitans0.40
Hura crepitans0.40
Hura crepitans0.40
HacanoMicropholis guianensis0.67
HackberryCeltis occidentalis0.531
HackiaTabebuia serratifolia0.994
Larix laricina0.53
Larix occidentalis0.52
Populus balsamifera0.34
Larix occidentalis0.52
Tabebuia serratifolia0.99
Celtis occidentalis0.53
Turraeanthus africanus0.51
Tabebuia serratifolia0.99
Triplochiton scleroxylon0.32
HagakhakDipterocarpus warburgii0.53
HagbucheCarpinus betulus0.61
HagebucheCarpinus betulus0.61
Turraeanthus africanus0.51
Tabebuia serratifolia0.99
HaiawaballiTetragastris altissima0.74
HainbucheCarpinus betulus0.61
Tabebuia serratifolia0.99
Tabebuia serratifolia0.99
Turraeanthus africanus0.51
HaldaChloroxylon swietenia0.88
HalebanVitex cofassus0.67
HampasKoompassia malaccensis0.76
HangiloMichelia excelsa0.42
HangiloMichelia sp.0.42
HannokiAlnus glutinosa0.41
HaraExcoecaria agallocha0.42
Betula alleghaniensis0.62
Hard ElmUlmus alata0.65
Hard Maple0.606
Acer nigrum0.57
Acer saccharum0.63
Pinus echinata0.51
Pinus palustris0.59
Pinus resinosa0.46
Acer nigrum0.57
HardbeamCarpinus betulus0.61
Hardy catalpaCatalpa speciosa0.37
Acer pseudoplatanus0.57
HasaraVitex cofassus0.67
HasiExcoecaria agallocha0.42
HataVitex cofassus0.67
Pometia pinnata0.60
HaudanEschweilera sagotiana0.90
Liquidambar styraciflua0.52
Nyssa aquatica0.50
Liquidambar styraciflua0.52
Picea rubens0.40
Pinus palustris0.59
Populus balsamifera0.34
Heavy HopeaHopea iriana0.80
HedgeMaclura pomifera0.72
Hedge AppleMaclura pomifera0.72
HediondoPiptadeniastrum africanum0.63
HeduMitragyna parvifolia0.59
HekakoroMelanorrhoea spp.0.75
HelechoGrevillea robusta0.54
Tsuga canadensis0.40
Tsuga canadensis0.40
Tsuga heterophylla0.45
HenduiLophira alata0.94
Henduri PomaCedrela toona0.47
HengDipterocarpus basilanicus0.54
HengDipterocarpus grandiflorus0.68
HengDipterocarpus warburgii0.53
Hymenaea courbaril0.83
Hymenaea courbaril0.83
HichaByrsonima coriacea0.68
Carya aquatica0.62
Carya cordiformis0.66
Carya illinoensis0.66
Carya lacinosa0.69
Carya myristiciformis0.60
Carya ovata0.72
Carya tomentosa0.72
Hickory boxwoodPlanchonella euphlebia0.89
Ulmus thomasii0.63
Liriodendron tulipifera0.42
Nyssa aquatica0.50
Hill fukadiTerminalia amazonia0.76
Hill toonCedrela serrata0.52
Shorea negrosensis0.59
Himalayan cypressCupressus torulosa0.47
Shorea negrosensis0.59
HintsyIntsia palembanica0.65
HintzyIntsia bijuga0.65
HlafutaAfzelia quanzensis0.62
HochiooTieghemella heckelii0.60
HoeboeballiLoxopterygium sagotii0.62
Triplochiton scleroxylon0.32
HogberryByrsonima coriacea0.68
HoliaByrsonima coriacea0.68
Ilex opaca0.55
HollyhockByrsonima coriacea0.68
Honduras cedarCedrela odorata0.394
Swietenia macrophylla0.47
Honduras Pitch PinePinus caribaea0.70
Honduras RosenholzDalbergia stevensonii0.88
Honduras RosewoodDalbergia stevensonii0.88
HoneylocustGleditsia triacanthos0.62
HongeBassia latifolia0.82
HoobodiaAnacardium excelsum0.33
HoobooballiLoxopterygium sagotii0.62
Celtis occidentalis0.53
Fraxinus nigra0.49
Hoop PineAraucaria cunninghamii0.443
Hoop TreeMelia azedarach0.51
HoreniCedrela toona0.47
Platymiscium pinnatum0.87
HormigueroCordia alliodora0.51
HornbaumCarpinus betulus0.61
HornbeamCarpinus betulus0.61
Horse AppleMaclura pomifera0.72
Horse ChestnutAesculus hippocastanum0.39
HorsefleshManilkara bidentata0.95
Horseflesh MahoganyHieronyma alchorneoides0.58
HorsetailCasuarina equisetifolia0.87
Horsetail BeefwoodCasuarina equisetifolia0.87
Horsetail CasuarinaCasuarina equisetifolia0.87
Horsetail TreeCasuarina equisetifolia0.87
HpangMitragyna parvifolia0.59
HuacapuMinquartia guianensis0.83
HububalliLoxopterygium sagotii0.62
Pinus banksiana0.43
Huevos de GatoDipterocarpus basilanicus0.54
Huevos de GatoDipterocarpus grandiflorus0.68
Huevos de GatoDipterocarpus warburgii0.53
Huevos de GatoPterocarpus marsupium0.714
Huevos de GatoPterocarpus vernalis0.63
HuhugweBrachylaena hutchinsii0.85
HuiconPouteria izabalensis0.64
HuiconPouteria pomifera0.84
HuilcaPiptadeniastrum africanum0.63
HumegPygeum turnerianum0.44
Ilex opaca0.55
Fraxinus excelsior0.58
Huntingdon willowSalix alba0.38
HunugPygeum turnerianum0.44
HuraHura crepitans0.402
Hura crepitans0.40
HuragalliChloroxylon swietenia0.88
HuragatuChloroxylon swietenia0.88
Tsuga heterophylla0.45
HurukCedrela toona0.47
Hutchu BevuMelia azedarach0.51
HuyamPinus merkusii0.59
HuynhHeritiera javanica0.65
HuynhHeritiera ornithocephala0.70
Guibourtia ehie0.71
HyeduaniniGuibourtia ehie0.714
Guibourtia ehie0.71

Footnotes:

  
1Forest Products Laboratory Wood Handbook @ 12% MC values
2Forest Products Laboratory Wood Handbook Calculated from Green MC values by Wagner
3Forest Products Laboratory Techsheets Calculated from Green MC values by Wagner
4WoodWorkersSource Wood Library Calculated from Green MC values by Wagner
5We included Douglas-fir(Pseudotsuga menziesii) Coast (.48)*, Interior West (.50)*, Interior North (.48)*, Interior South (.46)* to come up with an average SG of (.48)* *“Coast type Douglas-fir is defined as Douglas-fir growing in the States of Oregon and Washington west of the summit of the Cascade Mountains. Interior West includes the State of California and all counties in Oregon and Washington east of but adjacent to the Cascade summit. Interior North includes the remainder of Oregon and Washington and the States of Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming.” Specific Gravity resources: * Wood Handbook page 5-7
6According to USDA Forest Service, Forest Product Laboratory, Wood Handbook 2-8, Hard maple includes sugar maple (Acer saccharum) (.63)* and black maple (A. nigrum) (.57)*.
7According to USDA Forest Service, Forest Product Laboratory, Techsheets, Red Ash includes these three subspecies Fraxinus americana (.60)*, Fraxinus pennsylvanica (.56)*, Fraxinus profunda (.51)*
8According to USDA Forest Service, Forest Product Laboratory, Wood Handbook page 2-8, Soft maple includes silver maple (Acer saccharinum) (.47)*, red maple (A. rubrum) (.54)*, bigleaf maple (A.macrophyllum) (.48)*, and boxelder (A. negundo) (.45)** Specific Gravity resources:
* Wood Handbook page 5-5
** Forest Product Laboratory Techsheet
9According to the Southern Pine Inspection Bureau (SPIB) the four main subspecies that make up the SYP category are: Longleaf, Shortleaf, Loblolly and Slash pines. The SYP mix setting (.56) was determined by taking the average of Longleaf (.59)*, Shortleaf (.51)*, Loblolly (.51)* and Slash pines (.59)* Specific Gravity resources: * Wood Handbook page 5-7 & page 5-8
10 Forest Products Laboratory Techsheets Calculated from Green MC values by Wagner applying an acceptable volumetric shrinkage approximation per USDA GTR FPL-GTL-76
11 According to Forest Products Laboratory Techsheets Guatambu grown in *Brazil has a higher specific gravity then for **Argentinean material. *Guatambu (Brazil) (Balfourodendron riedelianum)(.79) Calculated from Green MC values by Wagner. **Guatambu (Argentinean) (Balfourodendron riedelianum)(.70) Calculated from Green MC values by Wagner.
12Forest Products Laboratory Techsheets Calculated from Dry (0%) MC values by Wagner applying an acceptable volumetric shrinkage approximation per USDA GTR FPL-GTL-76
13WoodWorkersSource Wood Library Calculated from Dry (0%) MC values by Wagner applying an acceptable volumetric shrinkage approximation per USDA GTR FPL-GTL-76
14WoodWorkersSource Wood Library Calculated from Green MC values by Wagner applying an acceptable volumetric shrinkage approximation per USDA GTR FPL-GTL-76
15WoodWorkersSource Wood Library Calculated from Dry (0%) MC values by Wagner
16The Wood Database Calculated from Green MC values by Wagner
17The Wood Database Calculated from Green MC values by Wagner applying an acceptable volumetric shrinkage approximation per USDA GTR FPL-GTL-76
18Tropicaltimber Calculated from Green MC values by Wagner applying an acceptable volumetric shrinkage approximation per USDA GTR FPL-GTL-76
19According to Forest Products Laboratory Techsheets Goncalo Alves grown in *Honduras and Venezuela has a higher specific gravity then for **Brazil and Colombia material. *Goncalo Alves (Honduras and Venezuela) (Astronium graveolens)(.89) Calculated from Green MC values by Wagner. **Goncalo Alves (Brazil and Colombian) (Astronium graveolens)(.80) Calculated from Green MC values by Wagner.
 
 
* Legal disclaimer:

Wagner has compiled species’ average specific gravity (SG) values (wood volume at 12% moisture content (MC) and oven-dry weight) from industry-accepted 3rd-party sources (USDA Forest Products Laboratory as an example) and provides this list for free with no implied warranty. Where an SG value listed in Wagner Meters’ manuals or website has been verified by Wagner, this is indicated as such, and not indicated as verified if a verification process has not been completed by Wagner for that species. Wagner is not responsible for any 3rd-party oversights or errors in their (the 3rd-parties) published SG values.

Where no published average SG value could be found for a species for the wood volume at 12% MC and oven-dry weight basis, Wagner has derived the proper SG value through a robust algorithm (see detailed explanation below under the heading ‘Specific Gravity (SG) Values of Wood and Their Referenced Moisture Content’).
 


 
Specific Gravity (SG) Values of Wood and Their Referenced Moisture Content

 

Wagner Meters’ moisture meters’ species settings are calibrated to wood samples that are at a nominal 12% moisture content (MC). It should also be recognized that the measurement accuracy of non-pin wood moisture meters is almost solely dependent on wood density; that is because wood species that have differing wood density but the same absolute amount of water will have different MC values because the definition of MC is the ratio of water weight to wood weight. Some online and other technical references that cite specific gravity (SG) values for different wood species list the SG when the wood is a different MC other than 12%. For example, some SG values listed are the values when the wood is dried all the way down to where the MC is actually zero. Other listed values are when the wood is “green” at perhaps 80% MC or even higher.

The reason that it matters what the MC was when the SG was determined is that the volume of a wood sample will shrink when it is dried down from high MC values to lower MC values. So as the volume of the wood sample shrinks, the density (SG) of the wood increases because the formula for the wood density is the weight of the wood sample divided by the volume of the wood sample, or more simply the ratio of the weight of the wood to its volume. As the weight stays the same during shrinkage, the volume decreases. Online and other references will not only provide SG values at some specific MC but also their “shrinkage ratio”. The shrinkage ratio is defined to be the percent of the volume of the wood that shrinks per decrease in MC value. For instance, one might see a 2% shrinkage ratio which means that for every 1% drop in MC the wood will shrink by 2% of its volume.

Wagner chose to calibrate its meters at a nominal 12% MC because this is close to where most wood will be in service and will be measured by our meters. Therefore we publish SG values for wood species to be used by our meters that correlate to a 12% MC value. Since online and other references publish SG values at sometimes 0% MC or “green” MC, you will often see different values online than what we publish. We correct these published values by applying correction factors based on MC at referenced SG values and shrinkage ratio published values. It should be noted that a wood sample will not begin shrinking significantly until the MC drops below fiber saturation point, which is generally between 28% and 32%, so we use 30% as the average fiber saturation point.

As an example, let’s say we have a published SG value of 0.50 referenced to 0% MC with a shrinkage ratio of 0.1% of volume per percent MC. We want to convert to an SG value referenced to 12% MC. A sample at 12 % MC will be 1.2% larger in volume (swells 12 * 0.1%). Since 0.50 equals the weight of the sample divided by volume, we now know the volume will actually be 1.2% larger, so the SG should be adjusted by a factor of 1 divided by (1 + 1.2%) or 1 divided by (1.012) = 0.50/1.012 = 0.49). So, in this specific case, the 12 % MC referenced SG value will be slightly less than the published value referenced at 0% MC.